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Gradient Boost#

Gradient Boost (GBM) is a stage-wise additive ensemble that uses a Gradient Descent boosting scheme for training boosters (Decision Trees) to correct the error residuals of a base learner.


The default booster is a Regression Tree with a max height of 3.


Gradient Boost utilizes progress monitoring via an internal validation set for snapshotting and early stopping. If there are not enough training samples to build an internal validation set given the user-specified holdout ratio then training will proceed with progress monitoring disabled.

Interfaces: Estimator, Learner, Verbose, Ranks Features, Persistable

Data Type Compatibility: Categorical and Continuous


# Name Default Type Description
1 booster RegressionTree Learner The regressor used to up the error residuals of the base learner.
2 rate 0.1 float The learning rate of the ensemble i.e. the shrinkage applied to each step.
3 ratio 0.5 float The ratio of samples to subsample from the training set to train each booster.
4 epochs 1000 int The maximum number of training epochs. i.e. the number of times to iterate before terminating.
5 minChange 1e-4 float The minimum change in the training loss necessary to continue training.
6 window 5 int The number of epochs without improvement in the validation score to wait before considering an early stop.
7 holdOut 0.1 float The proportion of training samples to use for internal validation. Set to 0 to disable.
8 metric RMSE Metric The metric used to score the generalization performance of the model during training.


use Rubix\ML\Regressors\GradientBoost;
use Rubix\ML\Regressors\RegressionTree;
use Rubix\ML\CrossValidation\Metrics\SMAPE;

$estimator = new GradientBoost(new RegressionTree(3), 0.1, 0.8, 1000, 1e-4, 10, 0.1, new SMAPE());

Additional Methods#

Return an iterable progress table with the steps from the last training session:

public steps() : iterable

use Rubix\ML\Extractors\CSV;

$extractor = new CSV('progress.csv', true);


Return the validation score for each epoch from the last training session:

public scores() : float[]|null

Return the loss for each epoch from the last training session:

public losses() : float[]|null


  1. J. H. Friedman. (2001). Greedy Function Approximation: A Gradient Boosting Machine. 

  2. J. H. Friedman. (1999). Stochastic Gradient Boosting. 

  3. Y. Wei. et al. (2017). Early stopping for kernel boosting algorithms: A general analysis with localized complexities. 

  4. G. Ke et al. (2017). LightGBM: A Highly Efficient Gradient Boosting Decision Tree.