Most estimators have the ability to be trained using a dataset. Estimators that require training are called Learners and implement the train() method among others. Training is the process of feeding data to a learner so that it can build an internal representation (or model) of the problem. Supervised learners require a dataset with labels. Unsupervised learners can be trained with either a labeled or unlabeled dataset but only the samples are used to build the model. Every learner has a unique way of learning but no matter how it works under the hood the training API is the same.

To begin training a learner, pass a dataset object to the train() method on the learner instance like in the example below.


Batch vs Online Learning#

Batch learning is when a learner is trained in full using only one dataset in a single session. Calling the train() method on a learner instance is an example of batch learning. In contrast, online learning occurs when a learner is trained over multiple sessions with multiple datasets as small as a single sample each. Learners that are capable of being partially trained like this implement the Online interface which includes the partial() method for training in an online scheme. Subsequent calls to the partial() method will continue training where the learner left off. Online learning is especially useful for when you have a dataset that is too large to fit into memory all at once.

$folds = $dataset->fold(3);




Note: After the initial training, the learner will expect subsequent datasets to contain the same count and order of features.

Monitoring Progress#

Since training is often an iterative process, it is useful to obtain feedback as to how the learner is progressing in real-time. For example, you may want to monitor the training loss to make sure that it isn't increasing instead of decreasing with training. Such early feedback can indicate model overfitting or improperly tuned hyper-parameters. Learners that implement the Verbose interface accept a PSR-3 logger instance that can be used to output training information at each time step (or epoch). The library comes built-in with a Screen Logger that does the job for most cases.

use Rubix\ML\Other\Loggers\Screen;

$estimator->setLogger(new Screen('example'));

[2020-02-08 06:02:57] example.INFO: Learner init booster=RegressionTree(max_depth=4 max_leaf_size=3 max_features=null min_purity_increase=1.0E-7) rate=0.1 ratio=0.5 estimators=1000 min_change=
0.0001 window=10 hold_out=0.1 metric=RSquared base=DummyRegressor(strategy=Mean)
[2020-02-08 06:02:57] example.INFO: Training base learner
[2020-02-08 06:02:58] example.INFO: Epoch 1 score=0.097751119226963 loss=6281265049.8042
[2020-02-08 06:02:58] example.INFO: Epoch 2 score=0.20067635817301 loss=5537137575.1759
[2020-02-08 06:02:58] example.INFO: Epoch 3 score=0.28331060230153 loss=4869582841.9896
[2020-02-08 06:02:59] example.INFO: Epoch 4 score=0.36730710929531 loss=4370856640.0286
[2020-02-08 06:02:59] example.INFO: Epoch 5 score=0.44183724381919 loss=3869890119.1739
[2020-02-08 06:04:07] example.INFO: Epoch 189 score=0.91416877793484 loss=192224708.33229
[2020-02-08 06:04:07] example.INFO: Epoch 190 score=0.91412704964864 loss=191766700.22592
[2020-02-08 06:04:08] example.INFO: Epoch 191 score=0.91395637122531 loss=191053995.23096
[2020-02-08 06:04:08] example.INFO: Epoch 192 score=0.91420102466788 loss=189569206.71289
[2020-02-08 06:04:08] example.INFO: Epoch 193 score=0.91410009100939 loss=188312560.73359
[2020-02-08 06:04:08] example.INFO: Ensemble restored to epoch 183
[2020-02-08 06:04:08] example.INFO: Training complete

Feature Importances#

Learners that implement the Ranks Features interface can evaluate the importance of each feature in the training set. Feature importances are defined as the degree to which an individual feature influences the model. Feature importances are useful for feature selection and for helping to explain predictions derived from a model. To output the normalized importance scores, call the featureImportances() method of a trained learner that implements the Ranks Features interface.

use Rubix\ML\Classifiers\ClassificationTree;

// Import dataset

$estimator = new ClassificationTree(10);


$importances = $estimator->featureImportances();

array(4) {
  [0]=> float(0.047576266783176)
  [1]=> float(0.3794817175945)
  [2]=> float(0.53170249909942)
  [3]=> float(0.041239516522901)

In this example, feature columns 1 and 2 are the most important whereas 0 and 3 only contribute a small amount to the model.