Inference is the process of making predictions using an Estimator. You can think of an estimator inferring the outcome of a sample given the input features and the estimator's hidden state obtained during training. Once a learner has been trained it can perform inference on any number of unknown samples containing values of the features used to train it.

Estimator Types#

There are 4 base estimator types to consider in Rubix ML and each type outputs a prediction specific to its type. Meta-estimators are polymorphic in the sense that they take on the type of the base estimator they wrap.

Estimator Type Prediction PHP Type
Classifier Class label String
Regressor Number Integer or Floating Point Number
Clusterer Discrete cluster number Integer
Anomaly Detector 1 for an anomaly, 0 otherwise Integer

Making Predictions#

All estimators implement the Estimator interface which provides the predict() method. The predict() method takes a dataset of unknown samples and returns their predictions from the model in an array.

Note: The inference samples must contain the same number and order of feature columns as the samples used to train the learner.

$predictions = $estimator->predict($dataset);

array(3) {
  string(3) "cat"
  string(3) "dog"
  string(4) "frog"

Single Predictions#

Sometimes, you'll just want to make a prediction on a single sample instead of an entire dataset. To return a single prediction from the model, pass the raw sample to the predictSample() method available on the Learner interface.

$prediction = $estimator->predictSample([0.25, 3, 'furry']);

string(3) "cat"

Estimation of Probabilities#

Sometimes, you may want to know how certain the model is about a particular outcome. Classifiers and clusterers that implement the Probabilistic interface have the proba() method that computes the joint probability estimates for each class or cluster number as shown in the example below.

$probabilities = $estimator->proba($dataset);  

array(2) {
    [0] => array(2) {
        ['monster'] => 0.975,
        ['not monster'] => 0.025,
    [1] => array(2) {
        ['monster'] => 0.2,
        ['not monster'] => 0.8,

Anomaly Scores#

Anomaly detectors that implement the Ranking interface can output the anomaly scores assigned to the samples in a dataset. Anomaly scores are useful for attaining the degree of anomalousness for a sample relative to other samples. Higher anomaly scores equate to greater abnormality whereas low scores are typical of normal samples.

$scores = $estimator->score($dataset);

array(3) {
  [0]=> float(0.35033859096744)
  [1]=> float(0.40992076925443)
  [2]=> float(1.68163357834096)